Anatomy and Physiology: Aromatherapy for the Urinary System

One of the excretory systems of your body, your urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder and one urethra. It rids your body of waste through the kidney’s production of urine. Blood is filtered of the waste products of metabolism by the kidneys, from which urine is produced and transported by two … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: Aromatherapy for the Urinary System

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Ear, Nose and Throat Work

Infection Fighters The ears, nose and throat are point of entry into the body and need to be well protected against invading micro-organisms. In preventing bacteria and viruses from travelling further afield, they sometimes become the focus of infection themselves, so these areas have rich blood supplies, which can transport large numbers of white blood … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Ear, Nose and Throat Work

Anatomy and Physiology: Aromatherapy for the Respiratory System

Your circulatory system transports life blood around your body and takes away toxins. It is backed up by your lymphatic system, which drains away excess fluids, toxins and waste. Your next essential system provides your body with oxygen, which is required by all your cells for energy to allow these processes and other chemical reactions … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: Aromatherapy for the Respiratory System

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Peripheral Nervous System works

The peripheral nervous system, or PNS, informs our brain of the world around us. It consists of nerves that run to and from the brain and spinal cord, carrying messages between the central nervous system and the body. These messages either carry sensations back to the brain or initiate muscular movement. We are aware of … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Peripheral Nervous System works

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Central Nervous System Works

The nervous system works as a whole, but as it is so complex in both structure and functioning it is usually divided into separate subsystems – the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. The central nervous system, or CNS, consists of the brain and spinal cord. These structures cor-ordinate and oversee all other parts of … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Central Nervous System Works

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Hormonal System Works

What are Hormones? Hormones are chemical messengers that travel around the body in the bloodstream. They are produced in specific sites, but each hormone affects only cells that have the correct receptor molecules on their surface. These cells may be in another part of the body. This receptor mechanism – also known as ‘lock and … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Hormonal System Works

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Immune System Works

The immune system is responsible for defending and protecting the body against infection and disease, yet some people are unfamiliar with it. The lymphatic system is the body’s main immune pathway. The spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow also help immunity. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels similar to veins. Tiny lymphatic capillaries … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Immune System Works

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Back Works

Vertebrae – our very own stacking system The back is an amazing structure. As its central support there are 33 vertebrae balancing on top of each other, held together by ligaments and cushioned by intervertebral disks. There are seven cervical vertebrae, which are the smallest and most flexible. The top two have very specific functions. … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Back Works

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Legs and Feet work

Anatomy of the Legs and Feet The structure of the lower limbs is very similar to that of the upper limbs. One long bone – the femur – forms the thigh, two bones – the tibia and fibula – form the lower leg, seven tarsals make up the ankle and heel and form the arches, … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Legs and Feet work

Anatomy and Physiology: How the Arms and Hands work

The structure of our arms and legs is quite similar – one long bone forms the upper part of the limb and two smaller bones, arranged beside each other, form the lower part. The hands and feet are formed of many small bones. Each of our arms consists of three long bones, the humerus in … Read moreAnatomy and Physiology: How the Arms and Hands work